This article shows the state of knowledge regarding ecological impacts of offshore wind farms. It developed proposals for reforms and incorporated international developments into the research. These proposals are derived from the experiences of the first OWF projects in Germany and their obstacles in the approval procedures. Therefore consistent and international standards for environmental impact assessments, a focus on specific subjects of protection (i.e. some birds or harbor porpoises) are proposed. Further recommendations include applying research findings to spatial planning and technical mitigation measures and regulating resting impacts with marine compensation measures.
Wind Energy at Sea, Marine Spatial Planning, Marine Environmental Impacts, Marine Mitigation Measures, Marine Compensation Measures
Cite this paper
Jens Lüdeke. (2019) Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy. International Journal of Environmental Science, 4, 1-19