Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; plgSystemAixeena_custom_Favicon has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/html/ on line 18
Environmental Hypothesis: Arsenic can be a Contributory Factor in Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection - IARAS





Alfred A. Duker, Saviour Mantey



Environmental Hypothesis: Arsenic can be a Contributory Factor in Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection

pdf PDF


Buruli ulcer (BU), an often-deforming skin and bone disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is now considered by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to be the third most widespread mycobacterial infection after Tuberculosis and leprosy. However, the reservoir of MU in the environment and the epidemiology of BU are poorly understood. This paper explores the hypothesis that arsenic in the natural environment can be a contributory factor in MU infection. A review and synthesis of the published literature shows: (a) numerous similarities between BU and arsenicosis; (b) spatial coincidences between BU rates and periodic enrichments of arsenic in the environment.


Mycobacterium ulcerans, Buruli ulcer, aquatic ecosystem, arsenic, spatial analysis.


[1] Josse R, Guédénon A, Darie H, Anagonou S, Portaels F, Meyers WM: Les infections cutanées à Mycobacterium ulcerans: Ulcères de Buruli. Med Trop 1995, 55: 363-373. [1] Josse R, Guédénon A, Darie H, Anagonou S, Portaels F, Meyers WM: Les infections cutanées à Mycobacterium ulcerans: Ulcères de Buruli. Med Trop 1995, 55: 363-373. 

[2] Connor DH, Meyers WM, Krieg RE. 1976 Infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. Edited by: Binford CH, Connor DH. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 1976: 1: 226. 

[3] Duker A. A: Spatial Analysis of Factors Implicated in Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection In Ghana, International Institute for Geoinformation Science & Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands 2005, ISBN: 90-8504- 243-7. 

[4] Guédénon A, Zinsou C, Josse R, Andele K, Pritze S, Portaels F, Meyers WM: Traditional treatment of Buruli ulcer in Benin. Arch. Dermatol 1995, 131: 741-742. 

[5] Van der Werf TS, van der Graaf WTA, Groothuis DG, Knell AJ: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in Ashanti Region, Ghana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1989, 83: 410-413. 

[6] Asiedu K, Etuaful S: Socio-economic Implications of Buruli Ulcer in Ghana: a Three-Year Review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998, 59 (6): 1015- 1022. 

[7] WHO: World Health Organisation targets untreatable ulcer: report from the first international conference on Buruli ulcer Control and Research. Inter Press Service. Yamoussoukro. Ivory Coast; 1998. 

[8] Portaels F: Epidemiology of mycobacterial diseases. Clinics Dermatol 1995, 13: 207-222. 

[9] Portaels F: Historical overview of Buruli ulcer. International Conference on Buruli ulcer Control and Research, Yamoussokro, Côte d’Ivoire; 6-8 July, 1998. 

[10] Josse R, Guédénon A, Aguiar J, Anagonou S, Zinsou C, Foundohou J, Touze J–E: L’ulcère de Buruli, une pathologie peu connue au Bénin (a propos de 227 cas). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1994, 87: 170-175. 

[11] Johnson PDR, Veitch MGK, Leslie DE, Flood PE, Hayman JA: The emergence of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection near Melbourne. MJA 1996, 164: 76-78. 

[12] Portaels F, Elsen P, Guimaraes-Peres A, Fonteyne PA, Meyers WM: Insects in the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. The Lancet 1999, 353: 986. 

[13] Marsollier L, Robert R, Aubry J, Saint Andre JP, Kouakou H, Legras P, Manceau AL, Mahaza C, Carbonnelle B: Aquatic insects as a vector for Mycobacterium ulcerans. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002, 68: 4623- 4628. 

[14] Portaels F, Chemlal K, Elsen P, Johnson JA, Hayman J, Hibble R, Kirkwood R, Meyers WM: Mycobacterium ulcerans in wild animals. Rev sci tech 2001, 20 (1): 252-264. ISSN: 2367-8941 156 Volume 2, 2017 

[15] Bencko V: Health aspects of burning coal with high arsenic content: the Central Slovakia experience. In ARSENIC- Exposure and Health Efects Edited by: Abernathy CO, Calderon RL, Chappell WR. Chapman and Hall, London; 1997: 84-91. 

[16] Asiedu K, Meyers W, Agbenorku P. 2000 Clinical features and treatment. In BURULI ULCER: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection Edited by: Asiedu K, Scherpbier R, Raviglione M. World Health Organisation, Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative; 2000:37-38. 

[17] Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Dhar RK, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Chakraborti D, Kabir S, Roy S: Groundwater arsenic contamination and suffering of people in Bangladesh. In Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects Edited by: Chappell WR, Abenarthy CO, Calderon RL. Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam; 1999: 165-182. 

[18] Gebel, T. 2000. Confounding variables in the environmental toxicology of arsenic. Toxicology 144, 155-162. 

[19] Pradinaud R, Basset A, Grosshaus E: Vingt cas de mycobactérioses cutanées en Guyane Franςaise. Castellania 1974, 2: 273-274. 

[20] Pradinaud R: Mycobactérioses cutanées atypiques. Encycl Méd Chir Dermatol 1980, 12510: B 10-2. 

[21] Cebrián ME, Albores MA, GarciaVargas G, Del Razo LM, OstroskyWegman P: Chronic arsenic poisoning in humans. In Arsenic in the Environment, Part II: Human Health Ecosystem Effects. Edited by: Nriago JO. John Wiley, New York; 1994: 93- 107. 

[22] Sun GF, Dai GJ, Li FJ, Yamauchi H, Yoshida T, Aikawa H: The present situation of chronic arsenism and research in China. In Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects. Edited by: Chappell WR, Abernathy CO, Calderon RL. Elsevier Science Amsterdam; 1999: 123-125. 

[23] Zaldivar R, Guillier A: Environmental and clinical investigations on the endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in infants and children. Zbl Bakt Hyg I Abt Orig B 1977, 165: 226-234. 

[24] Meyers W, Hayman J: Pathology. In BURULI ULCER: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Edited by: Asiedu K, Scherpbier R, Raviglione M, World Health Organisation, Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative; 2000: 35-36. 

[25] Guha Mazumber DN, Das Gupta J, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S, Chattopadhaya N, Chakraborti D: Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage. In ARSENIC – Exposure and Health Effects. Edited by: Abernathy CO, Calderon RL, Chappell WR. Chapman and Hall, London; 1997: 112-123. 

[26] Small PLC, George K: Toxin. In BURULI ULCER: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Edited by: Asiedu K, Scherpbier R, Raviglione M. World Health Organisation, Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative; 2000: 31-34. 

[27] Rosenberg HG: Systemic arterial disease and chronic arsenicism in infants. Arch Pathol 1974, 97: 360- 365. 

[28] Van der Werf TS, van der Graaf WTA, Tappero JW, Asiedu K: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. The Lancet 1999, 354: 1013-1018. 

[29] Gyasi SF, Awuah E, Larbi JA, Koffuor GA, Osei O-A: Clinical hematological and hispathological responses to arsenic toxicity in ICR mice using arsenic levels synonymous to Buruli ulcer endemic communities in the Amansie West District of ISSN: 2367-8941 157 Volume 2, 2017 Ghana. European J Exp Biol 2012, 2 (3): 683-689. 

[30] Adriano, DC: Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability and Risk of Metals. Springe Verlag; 2001: 867. 

[31] Bettley FR, O’Shea JA: The absorption of arsenic and its relation to carcinoma. Br J Dermatol 1975, 92: 563-568. 

[32] Henke K: Arsenic: Environmental Chemistry, Health Threats and Waste Treatment, John Wiley & Sons 2009, ISBN: 9780470741122. 

[33] Smith AH, Lingas EO, Rahman M: Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bull WHO 2000, 78: 1093-1103. 

[34] Tseng WP: Effects and dose-response relationships of skin cancer and Blackfoot disease with arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 1977, 19: 109-119. 

[35] Pershagen G. 1986 Sources of exposure and biological effects of arsenic. In Environmental Carcinogens. Selected Methods of Analysis, vol. 8 – Some Metals: As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn. Edited by: O’Neill IK, Schuller P, Fishbein L. IARC Publication No. 71, Chap. 3, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; 1986: 45-61. 

[36] Chen CJ, Hsueh YM, Tseng MP, Lin YC, Hsu LI, Chou WL, Chiou HY, Wang IH, Chou YL, Tseng CH, Liou SH: Individual susceptibility to arseniasis. In Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects IV. Edited by: Chappell WR, Abernathy CO, Calderon RL. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam; 2001: 135-143. 

[37] Valentine Jl, Reisbord LS, Kang HK, Schluchter MD: Arsenic effects on population health histories. In Trace elements in man and animals – TEMA 5: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals.Mills CF, Bremner I, Chesters JK. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux; 1985: 289-294. 

[38] Guha Mazumber DN, Chakraborty AK, Ghose A, Gupta JD, Chakraborty DP, Dey SB, Chattopadhyay N: Chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking tubewell water in rural West Bengal. Bull WHO 1988, 66 (4): 499- 506. 

[39] Guha Mazumber DN, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH: Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India. Int J Epidemiol 1998, 27: 871-877. 

[40] Beckett WS, Moore JL, Keogh JP, Bleecker ML: Acute encephalopathy due to occupational exposure to arsenic. Br J Ind Med 1986, 43: 66-67. 

[41] Ide CW, Bullough GR: Arsenic and old glass. J Soc Occup Med 1988, 38: 85-88. 

[42] Morton WE, Caron GA: Encephalopathy: an uncommon manifestation of workplace arsenic poisoning? Am J Ind Med 1989, 15: 1- 5. 

[43] Buchet JP, Lauwerys R: Evaluation of exposure to inorganic arsenic in man. In: Analytical techniques for heavy metals in biological fluids. Edited by: Fachetti S. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 1983: 75-90. 

[44] Leonard A: Arsenic. In Metals and their compounds in the environment. Edited by: Meriam E. VCH, Weinheim; 1991: 751-772. 

[45] Brown, H. S., Bishop, D R. and Rowan, C. A. The role of skin absorption as a route of exposure for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ISSN: 2367-8941 158 Volume 2, 2017 in drinking water. American Journal of Public Health May 1984: Vol. 74, No. 5, pp. 479-484. 

[46] Dutkiewicz, T. (1977). Experimental studies on arsenic absorption routes in rats. Environ. Health Perspect. 19, 173- 177. 

[47] Wester R.C., Maibach H.I., Sedik L., Melendres J., Wade M. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of arsenic from water and soil. Fundam. appl. Toxicol. 1993;20:336–340. 

[48] Rahman M.S., Hall L.L., Hughes M.F. In vitro percutaneous absorption of sodium arsenate in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol. in Vitro. 1994;8:441– 448. 

[49] Knobeloch, L. 2002. Health effects of arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Final 

[50] Farmer JG, Johnson LR: Assessment of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic based on urinary concentrations and speciation of arsenic. Br J Ind Med 1990, 42: 342- 348. 

[51] ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), 1990. ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease. 

[52] Ishinishi H, Tsuchiya K, Vahter M, Fowler BA: Arsenic. In Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 2nd ed., Chap 3. Edited by: Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Vouk V. Elsevier Science Publishers; 1986: 43-83. 

[53] Kitchin KT: Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: Modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated arsenic metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001, 172: 249-261. 

[54] Abernathy CO, Lui YP, Longfellow D, Aposhian HV, Beck B, Fowler B, Goyer R, Menzer R, Rossman T, Thompson C, Waalkes M: Arsenic. Health effects, mechanisms of actions and research issues. Environ Health Perspect 1999, 107: 593-597. 

[55] NRC: Arsenic in drinking water. National Research Council. Washington, D. C., National Academy Press; 1999. 

[56] Harrison MT, McCoy KL: Immunosuppression by arsenic: a comparison of cathepsin L inhbition and apoptosis. Int Immunopharmacol 2001, 1: 647-656. 

[57] Vega L, Ostrosky-Wegman P, Fortoul TI, Diaz C, Madrid V, Saavedra R: Sodium arsenite reduces proliferation of human activated T- cells by inhibition of the secretion of interleukin-2. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol 1999, 21: 203-220. 

[58] Lantz RC, Parliman G, Chen GJ, Carter DE: Effect of arsenic exposure on alveolar macrophage function. I. Effect of soluble As (III) and As (V). Environ Res 1994, 67 (2): 183-195. 

[59] Ahmad S, Kitchin KT, Cullen W R: Arsenic species that cause release of iron from ferritin and generation of activated oxygen. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000, 382 (2): 195-202. 

[60] Bullen, JJ: The significance of iron in infection. Rev Infect Dis 1981, 3: 1127-1138. 

[61] Sugarman B: Effects of heavy metals on bacterial adherence. J Med Microbiol 1980, 13: 351-354. 

[62] Frenkel K, Rossman TG, Yang CF: Cafeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) prevents arsenic-mediated transformation of human cells and down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Predictive Oncology and Intervention Strategies; Paris, France; February 9- 12, 2002. ISSN: 2367-8941 159 Volume 2, 2017 

[63] Golden MHN, Harland PSEG, Golden BE, Jackson AA: Zinc and immunocompetence in proteinenergy malnutrition. The Lancet 1978, 311 (8076): 1226-1228. 

[64] Cunningham-Rundles S, Lin DH: Nutrition and the immune system of the gut. Nutrition 1998, 14: 573-579. 

[65] Lewis TA, Hartmann CB, McCoy KL: Gallium arsenide differentially affects processing of phagolysosomal targeted antigen by macrophages. J Leucoc Biol 1998a, 63: 321-330. 

[66] Lewis TA, Hartmann CB, McCoy KL: Gallium arsenide modulates proteolytic cathepsin activities and antigen processing by macrophages. J Immunol 1998b, 161: 2151-2157. 

[67] Sikorski, E.E., McCay, J.A., White, K.L., Bradley, S.G. and Munson, A.E., 1989. Immunotoxicity of the semiconductor gallium arsenide in female B6C3F1 mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 13(4), pp.843-858. 

[68] Lewis TA, Munson AE, McCoy KL: Gallium arsenide selectively suppresses antigen processing by splenic macrophages for CD4+ T cell activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996, 278: 1244-1251. 

[69] Rosales-Castillo JA, AcostaSaavedra LC, Torres R, OchoaFierro J, Borja-Aburto VH, LopezCarrilo L, Garcia-Vargas GG, Gurola GB, Cebrian ME, Calderón-Aranda ES: Arsenic exposure and human papillomavirus response in nonmelanoma skin cancer Mexican patients: a pilot study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2004, 77 (6): 418- 423. 

[70] Gerdsen R, Stockfleth E, Uerlich M, Fartasch M, Steen KH, Bieber T: Papular palmoplantar hyperkeratosis following chronic medical exposure to arsenic: human papillomavirus as a co-factor in the pathogenesis of arsenical keratosis? Acta Derm Venereol 2000, 80: 292-293. 

[71] Karcher, S., Cáceres, L., Jekel, M., Contreras, R. 1999. Arsenic removal from water supplies in Northern Chile using ferric chloride coagulation. J Chart Inst Water Environ Manag 13, 164-169. 

[72] Aranyi, C., Bradof, J. N., O’Shea, W. J., Graham, J. A., Miller, F. J. 1985. Effects of arsenic trioxide inhalation exposure on preliminary antibacterial defenses in mice. Arch Environ Health 41, 171-177. 

[73] Stienstra Y, van der Graaf WTA, te Meerman GJ, The TH, de Leij F, van der Werf TS: Susceptibility to development of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease: review of possible risk factors. Trop Med Int Health 2001, 6: 554-562. 

[74] Gooding TM, Johnson PDR, Campbell DE, Hayman JA, Hartland EL, Kemp AS, Robins-Browne RM: Immune response to infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Infect Immun 2001, 69 (3): 1704-1707. 

[75] Gooding TM, Johnson PDR, Smith M, Kemp AS, Robins-Browne RM: Cytokine profiles of patients infected with Mycobacterium ulcerans and unaffected household contacts. Infect Immun 2002, 70 (10): 5562-5567. 

[76] Sathe SS, Gascone P, Lo W, Pinto R, Reichman LB: Severe anaemia is an important negative predictor for survival with disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990, 142: 1306-1312. 

[77] Bogner, J. R., Gathof, B., Heinrich, B., Matuschke, A., Backer, U., Goebel, F. D. 1990. Erythrocyte antibodies in AIDS are associated with mycobacteriosis and hypergammaglobulinemia. Klin Wochenschr 68, 1050-1053. 

[78] Gascon P, Sathe SS, Rameshwar P: Impaired erythropoiesis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. Am J Med 1993, 94: 41-48. 

[79] Armstrong CW, Stroube RB, Rubio T, Siudyla EA, Miller GB: Outbreak of fatal arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water. Arch. Environ. Health 1984, 39 (4): 276- 279. 

[80] Goldsmith S, From AHL: Arsenicinduced atypical ventricular tachycardia. N Engl Med 1986, 303: 1096-1097. 

[81] Franzblau, A., and Lilis, R. (1989). Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure. Archives of Environmental Health, 44(6), 385-390. 

[82] Wagner, S.L, J.S. Maliner, W.E. Morton, and R.S. Braman. 1979. Skin cancer and arsenical intoxication from well water. Arch. Dermatol. 115:1205-1207. 

[83] Cullen NM, Wolf LR, St Clair D: Pediatric arsenic ingestion. Am J Emerg Med 1995, 13 (4): 432-435. 

[84] Concha G, Vogler G, Lexcano D, Nermell B, Vahter M: Exposure to inorganic arsenic metabolites during early human development. Toxicol Sci 1998, 44: 185-190. 

[85] Lugo G, Cassady G, Palmissano P. Acute maternal arsenic intoxication with neonatal death. Am J Dis Child. 1969;117:328–330. 

[86] Anderson HA, Wolff MS: Environmental contaminants in human milk. J Exp Anal Environ Epidemiol 2000, 10: 755-760. 

[87] Harding ER: Arsenic contamination of garden soils and housedusts in West Cornwall. Bsc. Dissertation, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London; 1993. 

[88] Thornton I, Farago M: The geochemistry of arsenic. In Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects. Edited by: Abernathy CO, Calderon RL, Chappell WR. Chapman and Hall, London; 1997: 2-15. 

[89] Thornton I: Sources and pathways of arsenic in the geochemical environment: health implications. In Environ Geochem Health with special reference to developing countries. Edited by: Appleton JD, Fuge R, McCall GJH. Geological Society Special Publication no. 113, Geological Society, London; 1996: 153-161. 

[90] Simkin T, Siebert L: Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona; 1994: 349 pp. 

[91] Taylor GAM: The 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua: Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics; 1957: Bulletin No. 38, 119 pp. 

[92] Radford AJ: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in Papua New Guinea. PNG Med J 1974, 17: 145-149. 

[93] Nriagu, J. O. 1979. Global inventory of natural and anthropogenic emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere. Nature, 279, 409-411. 

[94] Nriagu JO: A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Nature 1989, 338: 47-49. 

[95] Lantzy RJ, MacKenzie FT: Atmospheric trace metals: global cycles and assessment of man’s impact. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 1979, 43: 511-525. ISSN: 2367-8941 161 Volume 2, 2017 

[96] Nriagu JO, Pacyna JM: Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature 1988, 333: 134-139. 

[97] Signorelli S: Distribuzione di arsenico nei fluidi di aree di vulcanismo attivo. Tesi di Laurea, Università di Firenze; 1993 (Italian). 

[98] Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG: A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl Geochem 2002, 17: 517- 568. 

[99] Nicolli HB, Suriano JM, Peral MAG, Ferpozzi LH, Baleani OA: Groundwater contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in an area of the Pampa, province of Córdoba, Argentina. In Water-Rock Interaction 2001, vol 2. Edited by: Cidu R. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse; 1989: 993-996. 

[100] Nriagu, J.O., Bhattacharya, P., Mukherjee, A.B., Bundschuh, J., Zevenhoven, R. and Loeppert, R.H., 2007. Arsenic in soil and groundwater: an overview. Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment, 9, pp.3-60. 

[101] Boyle RW, Jonasson IR: The geochemistry of arsenic and its use as an indicator element in geochemical prospecting. J Geochem Explor 1973, 2: 251-296. 

[102] Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG: Arsenic in Ground Water and the Environment. British Geological Survey 2005, 11: 263-299. 

[103] Bowell, RJ: Supergene gold mineralogy at Ashanti, Ghana: implications for the supergene behaviour of gold. Mineralog Mag 1992, 56; 545-560. 

[104] Wright JB, Hastings DA, Jones WB: Geology and Mineral Resources of West Africa. George Allen and Unwin Publishers, London; 1985: 185 pp. 

[105] Laverman AM, Switzer Blum J, Schaeffer JK, Philips EJ, Lovley DR, Oremland RS: Growth of strain SES3 with arsenate and other diverse electron acceptors. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995, 61: 3556-3561. 

[106] Stolz JF, Ellis DJ, Switzer Blum J, Ahmann D, Oremland RS, Lovley DR: Sulfurospirillum barnesii sp. Nov., Sulfurospirillum arsenophilus sp. Nov., and the Sulfurospirillum clade in the Epsilon Proteobacteria. Int. J. Systematic Bacteriol 1999, 49: 1177-1180. 

[107] Hoeft SE, Kulp TR, Stolz JF, Hollibaugh JT, Oremland RS: Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with sulfide as the electron donor: Experiments with Mono Lake water and isolation of strain MLMS-1, a chemoautotrophic arsenate-respirer. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004, 70: 2741-2747. 

[108] Santini JM, Sly LI, Schnagl RD, Macy JM: A new chemolithoautotrophic arseniteoxidizing bacterium isolated from a gold mine: Phylogenetic, physiological, and preliminary biochemical studies. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000, 66: 92-97. 

[109] KENOR ASA. Annual Report. ts/annual_reports/1995.pdf. Accessed 23/6/2004. 

[110] Aguiar J, Steunou C: 

[Buruli ulcers in rural areas of Benin: management of 635 cases]. Med Trop 1997, 57: 83- 90. 

[111] Amofah, GK: Control and management of Buruli ulcer disease. Ghana Med J 1995, 29: 589-602. 

[112] Amofah GK, Sagoe-Moses C, AdjeiAcquah C, Frimpong EH: Epidemiology of Buruli ulcer in ISSN: 2367-8941 162 Volume 2, 2017 Amansie West District, Ghana. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993, 87: 644- 645. 

[113] Marston BJ, Diallo MO, Horsburgh RC, Diomande I, Saki MZ, Kanga M, Patrice G, Lipman HB, Ostroff SM, Good RC: Emergence of Buruli ulcer disease in the Daloa region of Côte d’Ivoire. Am J Med Hyg 1995, 52: 219-224. 

[114] Monson MH, Gibson DW, Connor DH, Kappes R, Hienz H: Mycobacterium ulcerans in Liberia: a clinicopathological study of 6 patients with Buruli ulcer. Acta Trop 1984, 41: 165-172. 

[115] Grosset J, Kanga JM, Portaels F, Guédénon A, Tignokpa N, Scherpbier R, Asiedu K: Country assessment report (Annex 5). In. BURULI ULCER: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Edited by: Asiedu K, Scherpbier R, Raviglione M. World Health, Organisation, Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative; 2000: 87-92. 

[116] Azcue JM, Nriagu JO: Arsenic: historical perspectives. In Arsenic in the environment, Part I: Cycling and characterization. Edited by: Nriagu, JO. John Wiley, New York; 1994: 1- 15. 

[117] Buchanan GA: The seasonal abundance and control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on grapevines in Victoria. Aus J Agric Res 1977, 28: 125-132. 

[118] Yoon JK, Kim KS: Control of the fruitpiercing moths. Korean J Plant Protect 1977, 16: 127-131. 

[119] Davies BE, Jones LHP: Micronutrients and toxic elements. In Russell’s soil conditions and plant growth. Edited by: Wild A. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex; 1988: 780-814. 

[120] Green K, Broome L, Heinze D, Johnston S: Long distance transport of arsenic by migrating Bogon Moth from agricultural lowlands to mountain ecosystem. Vict Natural 2001, 118 (4): 112-116. 

[121] Welch AH, Lico MS, Hughes JL: Arsenic in ground water of the Western United States. Ground water 1988, 26 (3): 333-347. 

[122] Siegel FR: Environmental Geochemistry of Potentially Toxic Metals. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg; 2002: 218pp. 

[123] Mantey, S., Amankwah, R.K. and Duker, A. A (2014), Spatial Dependency of Buruli ulcer on Potential Surface Runoff and Potential Maximum Soil Water Retention, International Journal of Research In Medical and Health Sciences pp 01 -15 Vol. 03. No. 5– 2014. 

[124] Pearson AL: A retrospective applied case study of environmental and host characteristics of Buruli ulcer patients in the Amansie West District, 1996- 1999. Msc. Thesis, Western Washington University, USA; 2001. 

[125] Duker AA, Carranza EJM, Hale M: Spatial relationship between arsenic in drinking water and Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in the Amansie West District, Ghana. Min Mag 2005, 69 (5): 707-717. 

[126] Duker A. A, Carranza E, Hale M: Spatial dependency of Buruli ulcer prevalence on arsenic-enriched domains in Amansie West District, Ghana: implications for arsenic mediation in Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, International Journal of Health Geographics 2004, 3:19. 

[127] Hayman JA, Huygens HJ: Mycobacterium ulcerans across lake Victoria. Med J Aust 1982, 1: 138. ISSN: 2367-8941 163 Volume 2, 2017 

[128] Aggett J, Kriegman MR: The extent of formation of arsenic (III) in sediment interstitial waters and its release to hypolimnetic waters in Lake Ohakuri. Water Res 1988, 22 407-411. 

[129] BGS. 2000. Water Quality Fact Sheet: Arsenic. British Geological Survey, Keyworth. 

[130] Tole MP: The potential of geothermal systems in Kenya for balneological use. Environ Geochem Health 2002, 24 (2): 103-110. 

[131] Barker DJP: Buruli disease in a district of Uganda. J Trop Med Hyg 1971, 74: 260-264. 

[132] Nimick, D. A., Moore, J. N., Dalby, C. E., Savka, M. W. 1998. The fate of geothermal arsenic in the Madison and Missouri Rivers, Montana and Wyoming. Water Resour Res34, 3051-3067 

[133] McLaren SJ, Kim ND: Evidence for a seasonal fluctuation of arsenic in New Zealand’s longest river and the effect of treatment on concentrations in drinking water. Environ Pollut 1995, 90: 67-73. 

[134] Azcue JM, Nriagu JO: Impact of abandoned mine tailings on the arsenic concentrations in Moira Lake, Ontario. J Geochem Explor 1995, 52: 81-89. 

[135] Oluwasanmi JO, Solanke TF, Olurin EO, Itayemei SO, Alabi GO, Lucas AO: Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli) skin ulceration in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1976, 25: 122- 128 

[136] Ziefer A, Connor DH, Gibson DW: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection of two patients in Liberia. Int J Dermatol 1981, 20: 362-367. 

[137] Peraudin ML, Herrault A, Desbois JC: Ulcère cutané à Mycobacterium ulcerans (ulcère de Buruli). Annal Pédiat 1980, 27 (10): 687-692. 

[138] Mensah-Quainoo EK: A study of the magnitude and determinants of Buruli ulcer disease in the Ga District of Ghana. International Conference on Buruli ulcer Control and Research, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire; 6-8 July, 1998. 

[139] Armah, AK, Darpaah GA, Carboo D: Heavy metal levels and physical parameters of drainage ways and wells in three mining areas in Ghana. J Ghana Sci Assoc 1998, 1 (1): 113- 117. 

[140] Beining BA, Otte ML: Retention of metals originating from an abandoned lead-zinc mine by a wetland at Glendalough, Co. Wicklow. Biology and Environment. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 1996, 96B(2): 117-126. 

[141] Miller JR: The role of fluvial geomorphic process in the dispersal of heavy metals from mine sites. J Geochem Explor 1997, 58 (2-3): 101- 118. 

[142] Hess RE, Blanchar RW: Dissolution of arsenic from waterlogged and aerated soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1977, 41: 861-865. 

[143] McGeehan SL, Naylor DV: Sorption and redox transformation of arsenite and arsenate in two flooded soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1994, 58: 337-342. 

[144] Masscheleyn PH, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH: Effect of redox potential and pH on arsenic speciation and solubility in a contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 1991, 25: 1414- 1419. 

[145] Bickford G, Toll J, Hansen J, Bake E, Keesen R: Aquatic ecological and human health risk assessment of chemicals in wet weather discharges in Sydney region, New South Wales, ISSN: 2367-8941 164 Volume 2, 2017 Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 1999, 39 (1-12): 335-345. 

[146] Stoughton JA, Marcus WA: Persistent impacts of trace metals from mining on floodplain grass communities along soda butte creek, yellow stone national park. Environ Manag 2000, 25 (3): 305-320. 

[147] Meyers, W. M., Tignokpa, N., Priuli, G. B., Portaels, F. 1996. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer): first reported patient in Togo. Br J Dermatol 134, 1116-1121. 

[148] Barker DJP: Mycobacterial skin ulcers. Br J Dermatol 1974, 91: 473- 474. 

[149] Hayman J: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in Victoria: celebration of a golden jubilee? Aust J Dermatol 1987, 28: 99-105. 

[150] Ravisse P: L’ulcère cutané à Mycobacterium ulcerans au Cameroun. 1. Etude clinique épidemiologique et histologique. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1977, 70: 109-124. 

[151] Andreae, MO: Distribution and speciation of arsenic in natural waters and some marine algae. Deep Sea Res 1978, 25: 391-402. 

[152] Andreae, M. O. 1979. Arsenic speciation in seawater and interstitial waters: the biological, chemical interactions on the chemistry of a trace element. Limnol Oceanol 24, 440-452. 

[153] Savage KS, Bird DK, Ashley RP: Legacy of the California Gold Rush: Environmental geochemistry of arsenic in southern Mother Lode Gold District. Int Geol Rev 2000, 42 (5): 385-415. 

[154] Rodríguez R, Ramos JA, Armienta A: Groundwater arsenic variations: the role of local geology and rainfall. Appl Geochem 2004, 19: 245-250. 

[155] Akai J, Izumi K, Fukuhara H, Masuda H, Nakano S, Yoshimura T, Ohfuji H, Anawar HM, Akai K: Mineralogical and geomicrobiological investigations on groundwater arsenic enrichment in Bangladesh. Applied Geochem 2004, 19: 215-230. 

[156] Maest AS, Pasilis SP, Miller LG, Nordstrom DK: Redox geochemistry of arsenic and iron in Mono Lake, California, USA. In Proc. 7th Int Symp Water-Rock Interaction. Edited by: Kharaka YK, Maest AS. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam; 1992: 507-511. 

[157] Sarkodie PH, Nyamah D, AmonooNeizer EH: Speciation of arsenic in some biological samples from Obuasi and its surrounding villages. National Symposium Proceedings – The Mining Industry and the Environment, UST, Kumasi; April 14-15, 1997: 146-154. 

[158] Ostrosky-Wegman P, Gonseblatt ME, Montero R, Vega L, Barba H, Espinosa J, Palao A, Cortinas C, Garcia-Vargas G, Del Razo LM, Cebrian M: Lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and genotoxic findings in a pilot study on individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico. Mutat Res 1991, 250: 477-482. 

[159] Hayman J: Postulated epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Int J Epidemiol 1991, 20: 1093-1098. 

[160] Meyers WM: Mycobacterial infections of the skin. In Tropical Dermatology. Edited by: Seifert G. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, ch. 9; 1994. 

[161] Debacker M, Aguiar J, Stenou C, Zinsou C, Meyer WM, Scott JT, Dramaix M, Portaels F: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease: role of age and gender in incidence and morbidity. Trop Med Int Health 2004: 9 (12): 1297-1304.

Cite this paper

Alfred A. Duker, Saviour Mantey. (2017) Environmental Hypothesis: Arsenic can be a Contributory Factor in Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection. International Journal of Environmental Science, 2, 149-165


Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0