Emilien Namondo Findi, Mabel Nechia Wantim, Samuel Ndonwi Ayonghe



Assessing Rainfall and Temperature Trend: Implication on Flood Patterns in Vulnerable Communities of Limbe and Douala, Cameroon

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This study is concerned with the varying trends of temperature and rainfall within the cities of Limbe and Douala (Bonaberi municipality); all within Cameroon. These localities are characterised with significant changes in the pattern of the climatic variables, and has experienced fluctuations in rainfall and temperature reflecting declines. Therefore, the study aimed at evaluating trends and variability in rainfall and temperature, using timeseries analysis, Pearson’s correlation analyses, Sen’s slope and Mann Kendal tests in relation to flood trends within the study areas which previous studies didn’t include. Seasonal and inter-annual data for a 31-year period (1985-2016) obtained from the meteorological stations within the various cities were used. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to express the correlation, Mann Kendall and Sen’s statistics were used to test trends' existence to depict strength while assessing the anomalies. The results revealed occurrences of a rainy season (March to October), with most historical flood disastrous events, and a dry season (November to early March) which is often hot. Mann Kendall and Sen’s slope findings showed positively (p = < 0.05) increasing trends over time for rainfall and for temperature. However, annual rainfall patterns in Limbe, showed no trend, since the computed p-value was larger (p-value=0.427) than the significant level (alpha = 0.05), with moderately positive temperatures. Decreasing trends in rainfall and increasing temperature was evident, Limbe has a higher rainfall average of 315.605mm compared to Douala with 272.549mm. On average the cooler years recorded the highest rainfall amounts and corresponding flooding events, while highest temperatures were between 27.32℃ for Douala and 26.19℃ for Limbe, with temperature increments and rainfall decrease being visible. This was attributed to climate change influence which has, during the past two decades, led to weather extremes manifested as destructive floods disasters in these cities. These findings could facilitate planning and management of water resources, being suitable in monitoring and predicting climate proceedings against floods, while contributing significantly to the sustainable management of rain- dependent activities within Douala and Limbe.


Rainfall, Temperature, Pearson’s correlation, Sen’s slope Estimator, Mann Kendal analyses and Trend analyses, Limbe and Douala


Cite this paper

Emilien Namondo Findi, Mabel Nechia Wantim, Samuel Ndonwi Ayonghe. (2022) Assessing Rainfall and Temperature Trend: Implication on Flood Patterns in Vulnerable Communities of Limbe and Douala, Cameroon. International Journal of Environmental Science, 7, 1-13


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