Cowpea is the main source of food crop in many sub-Saharan Africa countries, including Chad. However, very little is known on the genetic diversity of South Chadian cowpea, particularly in a context of global warming and climate change. This study was undertaken to determine cowpea genotypes, ethnobotanical nomenclature and to assess morphological and agronomical variability for future breeding program to create a new varieties and build the core collection. Prospecting missions in 14 villages were conducted in rural areas and allowed to collect sixty cowpea landraces. Farmers differentiated landraces using characteristics such as, seed taste, cooking duration, seed color and seed size. The qualitative traits assessed revealed the presence of variability, including plant pigmentation, seed color, seed shapes dominated by rhomboid shape (87.5%). Analysis of variance indicated significant difference (p<0.01) between accessions for assessed quantitative traits. Pearson correlation between grain yield and number of pod per plant was positive (r=0.91; p<0.01). Moreover, grain yield was negatively correlated with plant height (r=−0.55; p<0.01) and days to flowering (r=−0.53; p<0.01). Additionally, cluster analysis performed with non-highly correlated traits allowed clustering the accessions in 4 groups and cluster 2 found to be better with highest mean value of grain yield (2.034 t.ha−1). The highest inter cluster divergence D2 was found between cluster 2 and 3, indicating divergence between accessions belonging to these clusters. In summary, addition of these findings in the national breeding program will help develop new varieties of cowpea with attributes that will enhance quality and productivity
Cowpea – diversity – ethnobotanical – improvement – Barh-Kôh – Chad
Cite this paper
Gapili Naoura, Bemadjita Adoumadje, Nadjiam Djirabaye, Mbaïguinam Mbaïlao, Bolni Marius Nagalo. (2020) Ethnobotany and Genetic Diversity of South Chadian Cowpea Landraces as a Novel Source of Early Grain Production. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 5, 85-100
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